Bibliography — Classification Index

H 2: VERSE: METRICS AND VERSIFICATION

538.
Kelly (Fergus): A poem in praise of Columb Cille.
In Ériu 24 (1973), pp. 1–34.
Edited from MS NLI G 50 (25 qq.) with reconstructed text, translation and notes. Ascribed in MS heading to Dallán [Forgaill] but ascribed to Becan mac Luighdech in a gloss. Beg. Fo réir Choluimb céin ad-fías. Includes discussion of metre (MS laoidh imrinn), which is described as ‘transitional’, as it displays both alliteration and regular end-rime.
2023.
Breatnach (Pádraig A.): The metres of citations in the Irish metrical tracts.
In Éigse 32 (2000), pp. 7–22.
On the frequency of the metres quoted (I) in Middle Irish metrical tracts and (II) in Irish grammatical tracts and Bardic syntactical tracts. With a statistical analysis of the latter.

Paper read at the Gerard Murphy Commemorative Conference, 4 December 1999.

5832.
Ó hAodha (Donncha): An bhairdne i dtús a ré.
In LCC 24 (1994), pp. 9–20.
Discusses the metrical tract entitled Córus bard cona bairdne (Mittelirische Verslehren I, ed. by R. Thurneysen 1891 [Best1, p. 53]). Includes a list of the metres associated with every grade.
2737.
Henry (P. L.): Táin roscada: discussion and edition.
In ZCP 47 (1995), pp. 32–75.
Critical edition of the main core of 16 roscada (LU 5422-5520) and the rosc of Fiacc son of Fergus (LU 5323-28), with variant readings, detailed linguistic analysis and English translation. This is preceded by a short study of the genre of prophetic vision in the Táin and a discussion of the edited texts.
14458.
Vries (Ranke de): Instances of mirrored alliteration in the earliest Irish poetry.
In ACJ 13 (2015), pp. 33–95.
16807.
Stifter (David): Metrical systems of Celtic traditions.
In NOWELE 69/1 (2016), pp. 38–94.
§1 includes a discussion of the OIr. terms fáith, fili, bard, cerd, dúan, cétal, rosc, cubaid; §5. surveys medieval Irish versification.
1064.
Corthals (Johan): The retoiric in Aided Chonchobuir.
In Ériu 40 (1989), pp. 41–59.
Poem beg. Ba haprainn nan dáil cu Artrig n-arnac, ed. with transl. and notes from MSS RIA 23 N 10 and LL. Incl. discussion of metre, style and ling. dating.
1883.
Ó Cuív (Brian): An ornamental device in Irish verse.
In Éigse 23 (1989), pp. 45–56.
Syllabic metres with additional feet.
778.
Breatnach (Liam): The Caldron of Poesy.
In Ériu 32 (1981), pp. 45–93.
Ed. with diplomatic and restored texts (incl. glosses on text) on the three cauldrons of poesy, Coire Goiriath, Coire Érmai, Coire Soḟis from MS TCD H 3. 18 with Engl. transl. and notes. Begins with Moí coire coir Goiriath. Discussion of linguistic dating and metrics. Includes index of names and principal notes. Appendix with ed. of text on the hazels of Segais (cuill na Segsa) from MS NLI G 10.

Add. et corr. in Ériu 35 (1984), pp. 189-191.

329.
Ní Dhomhnaill (Cáit): Closure in bardic poetry.
In Celtica 14 (1981), pp. 47–61.
On dúnadh in early modern Irish bardic poetry.
11282.
Holland (Gary), Lindow (John): Irish poetry and Norse dróttkvætt.
In Celtic florilegium [O Hehir studies] (1996), pp. 54–62.
Argues against Irish influence on Norse dróttkvætt.
367.
Lindeman (Fredrik Otto): An archaic linguistic feature in an Irish law text.
In Celtica 16 (1984), pp. 57–58.
On the survival of pre-anaptyxis forms in Din techtugud (= CIH i 205.22-223.21).
632.
Mc Manus (Damian): Úaim do rinn: linking alliteration or a lost dúnad?
In Ériu 46 (1995), pp. 59–63.
Discusses meaning of úaim do rinn as it occurs in the introduction to MV II (p. 29 as ed. by R. Thurneysen 1891 [Best1, p. 53]) and in the poem Dúnta for ndúan décid lib. Concludes that it is a type of dúnadh, whereby the link is to the end of the first line, i.e. the whole of the first line is repeated.
4145.
Mac Cárthaigh (Eoin): Cathain a dhéanfaidh consan teann comhardadh slán le consan éadrom?
In Ériu 57 (2007), pp. 61–66.
Argues that a single intervocalic consan teann and a single intervocalic consan éadrom preceded by short vowels will not make perfect rhyme with each other in dán díreach.
7026.
Freeman (Philip M.): Saturnian verse and early Latin poetics.
In JIES 26/1-2 (Spring/Summer 1998), pp. 61–90.
Also discusses the similarities between the Saturnian and Old Irish verse.
473.
Bruford (Alan): Song and recitation in early Ireland.
In Celtica 21 (1990), pp. 61–74.
With a discussion of Scottish Gaelic songs and metres.
2234.
Herren (Michael W.): The stress systems in Insular Latin octosyllabic verse.
In CMCS 15 (Summer 1988), pp. 63–84.
Evidence from Virgil the Grammarian’s verse theory (De metrorum compositione) is discussed. Incl. analyses of sample stanzas from the Antiphonary of Bangor and Altus prosator.

Repr. in Latin letters in early christian Ireland, nº XV.
2185.
Isaac (Graham R.): Zur frühen keltischen Metrik.
In 2. Deutsches Keltologensymposium (1999), pp. 77–95.
9566.
O Riordan (Michelle): Makers and metre.
In PIR 67 (Winter 2000), pp. 79–84.
4637.
Ó Riain (Gordon): The consonant cluster -rdh-.
In Éigse 36 (2008), pp. 82–86.
1136.
Ó Háinle (Cathal G.): Refrains in ógláchas poems.
In Ériu 42 (1991), pp. 83–98.
Refrain-type poems can be traced to (a) native developments based on the extension of the use of dúnadh, (b) imitation of foreign types, and (c) a blend of both (a) and (b).
1510.
Ní Dhomhnaill (Cáit): Mioneolas meadrachta III.
In Éigse 15/2 (Geimhreadh 1973), pp. 89–92.
[1.] Ógláchas ar Chasbhairdne; [2.] is (copail, is (cónasc)). Part [I] in Éigse 14/3 (1972), pp. 207-14; part II in Éigse 14/4 (1972), pp. 265-68.
16539.
McLaughlin (Roisin): Unusual gnáthaisti in Mittelirische Verslehren III.
In Dá dtrian feasa fiafraighidh (2017), pp. 95–109.
10092.
Árnason (Kristján): Did dróttkvætt borrow its rhythm from Irish?
In Íslenskt mál 3 (1981), pp. 101–111.
Focuses on the rhythmical structure of this form of Nordic alliterative verse with the aim of assessing the likelihood of influence from the Irish rinnard metre.
2137.
Hemprich (Gisbert): Cia ainm cach dunta…: Zum dúnad in den frühen irischen Dichtung.
In 1. Deutsches Keltologensymposium (1993), pp. 101–120.
3191.
Busse (Peter): Irish rhyme schemes in Old High German poetry: an example for a cultural loan?
In SC 1 (2002), pp. 107–113.
Argues for direct Irish influence on Old High German metrics.
8386.
Ó Cuív (Brian): Metrics and Irish phonology.
In Papers in Celtic phonology (1979), pp. 108–123.
15917.
McManus (Damian): Miscellanea on Classical Irish: 1. On cadad at -s s- boundaries.
In Ériu 66 (2016), pp. 111–121.
Investigates the operation of the cadad (‘delenition’) rule involving the accumulation of two s-sounds across the word boundary in both unstressed ∼ stressed and stressed ∼ stressed environments.
8879.
Gillies (William): Music and Gaelic strict-metre poetry.
In StC 44 (2010), pp. 111–134.
Focuses on the musical aspect of the performance of dán díreach. Appendix: [A summary of] Classical Gaelic metrics.
16540.
Ó Macháin (Pádraig): Prosodic analysis in manuscript and print: a short text from the bardic era.
In Dá dtrian feasa fiafraighidh (2017), pp. 111–129.
Discusses a short prefatory tract on the principal bardic metres, surviving in two versions: I. RIA 23 D 4, and II. TCD F 5. 3; includes transcripts.
477.
Corthals (Johan): Some observations on the versification of the rhymeless ‘Leinster poems’.
In Celtica 21 (1990), pp. 113–125.
1. Cadenced verse; 2. Alliterative chain; 3. Mixed types.
4350.
Wentworth (Roy G.): An dàrnacha beum ann an òrain na Gàidhlig.
In SGS 20 (2000), pp. 117–146.
Includes a glossary of metrical terms.
2574.
McLaughlin (Roisin): Metres in Mittelirische Verslehren III.
In Ériu 55 (2005), pp. 119–136.
Suggests, through analysis of the metres illustrated in the tract, that Auraicept na nÉces and In Lebor Ogaim were among the sources of its compiler.
335.
Quin (E. G.): Ochtḟoclach Choluim Chille.
In Celtica 14 (1981), pp. 125–153.
82 qq. in ochtfhoclach metre, ascribed to Colum Cille. Edited from MS Maud Misc. 615 and MS RIA 23 P 2 (Book of Lecan), with English translation and notes. First line Día mór dom imdegail.
10524.
Ó Buachalla (Breandán): The phonology of rinn and airdrinn.
In ZCP 58 (2011), pp. 129–164.
Argues that five short vowels were distinguished in unstressed position in Middle and Early Modern Irish poetics.
10556.
Greenhill (Peter): Bardic rhythm: the implications from cerdd dant studies.
In StC 45 (2011), pp. 131–153.
Includes a comparison with Irish strict-metre alliterative verse.
1906.
Ó Baoill (Colm): Rhyming vowels before long liquids in Scottish Gaelic.
In Éigse 24 (1990), pp. 131–146.
1. ui : [uː]; 2. [au] : [ai]; 3. ainneart; 4. ceannard; 5. bínne, línne; cunnart.
8880.
Blankenhorn (Virginia): Observations on the performance of Irish syllabic verse.
In StC 44 (2010), pp. 135–154.
4631.
Dunn (Charles W.): Celtic [versification].
In Versification (1972), pp. 136–147.
Provides a brief overview of Irish alliterative, syllabic and accentual verse.
10459.
Ní Dhomhnaill (Cáit): Dúblóga uamacha Gaeilge.
In Béaloideas 56 (1988), pp. 141–152.
A collection of alliterative and riming doublets in Irish. Includes (§8) an excursus on the possible derivation of fionna feanna.
5922.
Pilch (Herbert): Phonetische Grundlagen der keltischen Metrik.
In Metrics and the media (1991), pp. 141–154.
2577.
McManus (Damian): Varia: III. Miscellanea on bardic poetry: 1. Lorga bhrisde and compensation in séadna.
In Ériu 55 (2005), pp. 147–166.
Metrical fault compensated for by alliteration.
2682.
McManus (Damian): Varia: III. Miscellanea on bardic poetry: 2a. Elision of unstressed vowels in compounds.
In Ériu 55 (2005), pp. 149–150.
2683.
McManus (Damian): Varia: III. Miscellanea on bardic poetry: 2b. Shortening of long vowels in hiatus in compounds.
In Ériu 55 (2005), pp. 151–152.
798.
Sproule (David): Complex alliteration in Gruibne’s roscad.
In Ériu 33 (1982), pp. 157–160.
Analysis of alliterative patterns in roscad beg. Fo chen a Chonaill cháin Chuirc.
1670.
Mac an Bhaird (Alan): Dán díreach agus ranna as na hannála 867-1134.
In Éigse 17/2 (Geimhreadh 1977–1978), pp. 157–168.
Based on verse mostly from AFM and AU1, illustrates the gradual development of dán díreach from the ninth to twelfth century. Fifteen verses / excerpts ed. from printed editions of AFM and AU, with Engl transl. and notes. First lines: 1. Flann mac Conaing cosnaidh ríogh; 2. Ba congbhaidh Cearbhall do ghréas; 3. Brónach inniu Éire uagh; 4. Sudrall Muighe (maith re bágh); 5. Lasar Laighean lir go tráigh; 6. Má ro bíoth ua Breasail Bhric; 7. Ó ad-bhath Donnchadh, deilm do raoi; 8. Macha mhainbhtheach meadhraid muaidh; 9. Duibhlitir dionn eagna uaigh; 10. Flann a prímhchill Bhuithe bhinn; 11. Rángadar Laighin Luimneach; 12. Dubhthach duine dlightheach dúr; 13. Cumha ardríogh in Áth Cliath; 14. Ní chuala coinnmheadh n-eimhir; 15. Moghéanar duit id dheathaigh.
1282.
Isaac (G. R.): Varia: I. deibide.
In Ériu 49 (1998), pp. 161–163.
On the terms rannaigecht ‘unitary-stanza-making’ and deibide ‘differentiated, disagreeing (form)', the latter representing a substantivised adjectival derivative from deibe ‘difference, variety, disagreement’ + adjectival de, vs. GOI §392, where it is suggested that deibide derives from de + bíthe ‘cut in two’.
2679.
McManus (Damian): Varia: III Miscellanea on bardic poetry: 8. The metrical fault called iomarcaidh.
In Ériu 55 (2005), pp. 163–165.
11288.
Slotkin (Edgar M.): A note on early Irish prosody.
In Celtic florilegium [O Hehir studies] (1996), pp. 165–168.
2678.
McManus (Damian): Varia: III. Miscellanea on bardic poetry: 9. Lenited and unlenited consonants in closure.
In Ériu 55 (2005), p. 165.
p closing on an opening f.
802.
Lubotsky (Alexander): Varia: IV. On the alliteration in The guesting of Athirne.
In Ériu 33 (1982), pp. 170–171.
Restores ‘linking alliteration’ by transposing lines 6 and 7 in poem beg. Glass úar errach aigide (as ed. by K. Meyer, in Ériu 7 (1914), p. 4 (Best2 1173), thus rendering D. Greene's emendations unnecessary (in A golden treasury of Irish poetry (1967), p. 141 [BILL 5542]).
Greene (D.) (ref.), Meyer (K.) (ref.)
5923.
Herren (Michael W.): Hibernolateinische und irische Verskunst mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Siebensilbers.
In Metrics and the media (1991), pp. 173–188.
Repr. in Latin letters in early christian Ireland, nº XVI.
17996.
Hoyne (Mícheál): Early Modern Irish miscellanea: 3. Áoi trasgartha.
In Ériu 67 (2017), pp. 178–183.
On the distinction of words earlier written with ai (which later became oi but did not retain a variant in ai) and also with (later written áoi), responsible for various metrical licences.
14190.
Greene (David): Y dail a’r bôn.
In Bardos [Fs. J.E. Caerwyn Williams] (1982), pp. 180–186.
1672.
Harrison (Alan): Snéadhbhairdne.
In Éigse 17/2 (Geimhreadh 1977–1978), pp. 181–196.
Identifies two different types of snéadhbhairdne in crosántacht texts of the ClModIr period. Argues that the amhrán metre of later crosántacht texts derives from the syllabic snéadhbhairdne of earlier ones. Provides a rearrangment in amhrán form of snéadhbhairdne of the crosántacht beg. Targaire dhearscnaí do rinneadh le Créafann (based on text in NDii 31–33) by Peadar Ó Doirnín.
1041.
Sproule (David): Complex alliteration, full and unstressed rhyme, and the origin of deibide.
In Ériu 38 (1987), pp. 183–198.
17997.
Hoyne (Mícheál): Early Modern Irish miscellanea: 4. A rhyming example of nom. pl. dee ‘gods’ in Classical Modern Irish.
In Ériu 67 (2017), pp. 183–186.
5924.
Kalyguine (Victor): Principes de l’organisation phonique du texte dans la poésie irlandaise archaique.
In Metrics and the media (1991), pp. 189–195.
5925.
Breatnach (Liam): Zur Frage der roscada im Irischen.
In Metrics and the media (1991), pp. 197–205.
1482.
Ní Dhomhnaill (Cáit): Mioneolas meadrachta [I].
In Éigse 14/3 (Samhradh 1972), pp. 207–214.
[1.] Focail áirithe i gcomhardadh (é, í, mac, Íosa, Críost); [2.] Bá. Part II in Éigse 14/4 (1972), pp. 265-68; part III in Éigse 15/2 (1973), pp. 89-92.
5926.
Ó hAodha (Donncha): The first Middle Irish metrical tract.
In Metrics and the media (1991), pp. 207–244.
Includes a list of the metres associated with every grade.
13867.
McManus (Damian): Varia: II. Classical Irish miscellanea 1. (a) Triple n ‘breaking’ in perfect rime; (b) Related phenomena.
In Ériu 64 (2014), pp. 213–222.
486.
Herren (Michael W.): The stress system of the Hiberno-Latin hendecasyllable.
In Celtica 21 (1990), pp. 223–230.
Repr. in Latin letters in early christian Ireland, n.º XVII.
3351.
Ó hAodha (Donncha): The first Middle-Irish metrical tract: two notes.
In Peritia 16 (2002), pp. 232–241.
1. On the additional metrical examples added to the various manuscript versions of Mittelirische Verslehren I; 2. ad AU 840.4 = Kuno Meyer, Bruchstücke der älteren Lyrik Irlands p.10 §15 [Is hē Feidilmith in rı̄]; read éit rige.
5927.
Tranter (Stephen N.): Divided and scattered, trussed and suported: stanzaic form in Irish and Old Norse tracts.
In Metrics and the media (1991), pp. 245–272.
2046.
Carney (James): Linking alliteration (fidrad freccomail).
In Éigse 18/2 (1981), pp. 251–262.
With a list of all the types of linking alliteration.
7005.
Olmsted (Garrett): Gaulish, Celtiberian and Indo-European verse.
In JIES 19/3-4 (Fall/Winter 1991), pp. 259–307.
Also discusses the development of early Irish metres, illustrated with the poems Dind ríg, Luin oc elaib, Conailla Medb míchuru and In fitir in dub.
1488.
Ní Dhomhnaill (Cáit): Mioneolas meadrachta II.
In Éigse 14/4 (Geimhreadh 1972), pp. 265–268.
[1.] Focail árithe i gcomhardadh (:é, :í, etc.); [2.] Droichead uama. Part [I] in Éigse 14/3 (1972), pp. 207-214; part III in Éigse 15/2 (1973), pp. 89-92.
5928.
Ó Macháin (Pádraig): The early modern Irish prosodic tracts and the editing of ‘bardic verse’.
In Metrics and the media (1991), pp. 273–287.
5929.
Breatnach (Pádraig A.): Die Entwicklung und Gestaltung des neuirischen Versmasses.
In Metrics and the media (1991), pp. 289–299.
16546.
Breatnach (Pádraig A.): Ornamentation in rannaigheacht.
In Dá dtrian feasa fiafraighidh (2017), pp. 293–337.
2846.
Kuryłowicz (Jerzy): La rime en vieil-irlandais.
In ÉtC 13 (1972–1973), pp. 298–307.
Paper read to the 4th ICCS, Rennes 1971.
14473.
Tristram (Hildegard L. C.): Les métriques insulaires: divergence et convergence.
In Mediaevistik 4 (1991), pp. 317–362.
11643.
Ó Curnáin (Brian): An dán díreach, carnach, meánach.
In Ilteangach, ilseiftiúil [Fs. N. J. A. Williams] (2012), pp. 328–395.
Studies the phonetic and phonological basis of the main features of dán díreach, and offers a systematisation of this analysis with particular reference to rhyming consonant clusters.
16484.
McKenzie (Bridget Gordon): On the relation of Norse skaldic verse to Irish syllabic poetry.
In Speculum norroenum (1981), pp. 337–356.
14158.
Mac Eoin (Gearóid): The Irish metrical term laíd.
1718.
Carney (James): Aspects of Archaic Irish.
In Éigse 17/4 (Geimhreadh 1978–1979), pp. 417–435.
Statutory public lecture of the School of Celtic Studies, 1978. On syncope and the ‘trisyllabic factor’ in Archaic Irish verse; includes a discussion of Bergin’s law.
1447.
Breatnach (Liam): Canon law and secular law in early Ireland: the significance of Bretha nemed.
In Peritia 3 (1984), pp. 439–459.
Discusses Bretha nemed, dated to between 721 and 742, composed in Munster by three kinsmen: Forannán (a bishop), Máel Tuile (a poet) and Báethgalach hua Búirecháin (a judge). Incl. ed. with transl. of six verses of a poem beg. Aimirgin Glungeal tuir teand by Gilla in Choimded Ua Cormaic from RIA MS D ii 1 (Bk of Uí Mhaine). Old Irish version of Collectio Canonum Hibernensis Book XLII, chaps 1-4, ed. with translation and notes from Cotton Nero A 7. Some discussion of rosc and ‘Archaic Irish’.
16437.
Armstrong (John): Vowel equivalences in Classical Modern Irish rime: modern and medieval analyses compared.
In Indo-European studies IV (1981), pp. 613–724.
13411.
Ní Dhomhnaill (Cáit): Duanaireacht: rialacha meadarachta fhilíocht na mbard.
Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig an tSoláthair, 1975. [ix] + 175 pp.
1. An bhairdne; 2. An rann, an duan agus a bpáirteanna; 3. Rangú consan is guthaithe; 4. Cuibheas; 5. Riachtanais aiste; 6. Aicmí filíochta; 7. Breacadh fíre; 8. Breacadh taibhse, réim chanúna, caitheamh aonfhocail, péirí macasamhla; 9. Lochtanna meadarachta; 10. Rialacha na n-aistí.

Includes a selection of poems: 1. Ionmhuin sgríbhionn sgaoiltear sunn; 2. Fuaras féin im maith ó mhnaoi; 3. An tú m’aithne, a fhalluing dhonn?; 4. Orpheus Óg ainm Eoghain; 5. Beag mac Big; 6. A fhir ghlacas a ghalldacht; 7. A Shionann Chuinn Chéadchathaigh; 8. Mo-chean don loingse tar lear; 9. Maghnas mar do múineadh; 10. An aithne dhó dáil na mbeach?; 11. Táinig éinrí d’fhuil Éibhir; 12. Beag mhaireas do mhacraidh Ghaoidheal; 15. Tabhraidh chugam cruit mo ríogh; 16. Cosmhail re Coin na hEamhna; 17. Mairg atá an uairsi gan Aodh; 18. Slán agaibh, a fhir chomhtha; 19. Uaigneach a-taoi, a theach na mbráthar; 20. Soraidh slán ler saoithibh saoidheachta; with textual notes, glossary and variae lectiones.

Rev. by
Pierre-Yves Lambert, in ÉtC 17 (1980), pp. 318-319.
Brian Ó Cuív, in Celtica 13 (1980), pp. 190-193.
Donncha Ó hAodha, in ZCP 39 (1982), pp. 314-317.
Diarmuid Ó Laoghaire, in Studies 67/267 (Autumn, 1978), pp. 246-247.
Séamas Ó Murchú, in Éigse 17/2 (1977-1978), pp. 267-268.
J. E. Caerwyn Williams, in StC 14-15 (1979-1980), pp. 455-457.
14359.
Tranter (Stephen N.): Clavis metrica: Háttatal, Háttalykill and the Irish metrical tracts.
BNPh, 25. Basel; Frankfurt am Main: Helbing & Lichtenhahn, 1997. 226 pp. (Beiträge zur nordischen Philologie, 25).
A comparative study of prescriptive metrics applied to stanzaic-syllabic verse in Ireland and Scandinavia; the Irish material is represented by MV I [Córus bard cona bairdne] and IV [Sluindfet dúib dagaisti in dána by Cellach úa Rúanada].

Rev. by
Johan Corthals, in Celtica 24 (2003), pp. 340-344.